The references in this section are sorted by term in alphabetical order
[Lommel-Arle 1] Augmented Translation Powers up Language Services
DePalma, Don and Arle Lommel. (15 February 2017) Common Sense Advisory Research blog entry on augmented translation.
[Lommel-Arle 2] Augmented Translation Puts Translators Back in the Center
Lommel, Arle. (19 May 2017) tekom blog entry on augmented translation.
[Burchardt-Aljoscha 1] Parallel Text Alignment
Wikipedia article on parallel texts.
[Burchardt-Aljoscha 2] Bitext Word Alignment
Wikipedia article on bitext word alignment.
[Tingley-Chase 1] W3C: Character Encodings for Beginners
[Tingley-Chase 2] W3C: Character Encodings: Essential Concepts
A more in-depth discussion of characters, character encodings, and related concepts, with an emphasis on Unicode.
[Ruane-Dave 1] Official Character set names on the internet (IANA)
[Ruane-Dave 2] Programmer information on Character sets and encoding: What every programmer absolutely needs to know
[Ruane-Dave 3] Unicode, UTF8 & Character Sets: The Ultimate Guide
[Ruane-Dave 4] Universal Character Set Characters
Open standard that lists the Universal Character Set characters.
[Zetzsche-Jost 1] Computer-Aided Translation
Garcia, Ignacio. In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology. Ed. Sin-Wai Chan. Routledge: Oxford/New York: 68-87.
[Zetzsche-Jost 2] A Translator’s Tool Box for the 21st Century: A Computer Primer for Translators
Zetzsche, Jost. Winchester Bay: International Writers’ Group. 2003-2017.
[Sepulveda-Miguel 1] Context in Translating
Nida, Eugene Albert. Explains the different kinds of contexts that translators must consider.
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 1] The Content Pool
Porter, Alan. Porter’s book provides a great overview of content strategy. Pages 50-54 talk about controlled language in more detail.
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 2] Controlled Language: The Next Big Thing in Translation
Muegge, Uwe. This article talks about the implications of controlled language for translation. Controlled language is part of terminology management.
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 3] The Benefits of Using Controlled Language
Brown-Hoekstra, Kit. The essay for this book is based on this presentation and blog post for GALA.
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 4] Summary of Controlled Language Initiatives
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 1] Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach, 7th ed.
Neuliep, James W. (2017) Chapter 2, “The Cultural Context,” discusses the cultural dimensions and how they show cultural context.
[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 2] Geert Hofstede’s website
Based on his research at IBM, Geert Hofstede developed the cultural dimensions as a way of understanding the impact of culture on communication in a multicultural corporate environment.
[Di Tullio-Laura 1] Cultural Dimensions
Hofstede, Geert. An explanation of the cultural dimensions that Hofstede developed at IBM.
[Di Tullio-Laura 2] American Dreaming: Refugees from Corporate Work seek the Good Life
Burrow, David. (2008) How to use ethnography for in-depth consumer insight.
[Di Tullio-Laura 3] Intro to Discourse Communities and Ethnographic Writing
LaVecchia, Christina M. (2016) Lecture on YouTube that discusses discourse communities.
[Di Tullio-Laura 4] Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms
Heath, Shirley Brice. (1999) Page 13 discusses conceptual categories of composition.
[Di Tullio-Laura 5] Does corporate ethnography suck? A cultural analysis of academic critiques of private-sector ethnography
Ladner, Sam. (2012) Ethnography Matters blog post that discusses the problems and challenges with corporate ethnography. There are 3 parts to the post.
[Di Tullio-Laura 6] Ethnographic research a key to strategy
Anderson, Ken. (March 2009) An article in Harvard Business Review that discusses ways a company can use ethnography to inform corporate strategy.
[Di Tullio-Laura 7] Lost in Translation: 8 International Marketing Fails
Brooks, Chad. (2013) A Business News Daily blog post that describes some of the more famous marketing blunders.
[Swisher-Val 1] SDL Help, Translation Memory Match
Help topic that explains how SDL Worldserver determines exact and fuzzy matches.
[Swisher-Val 2] Pricing TM Workflow
GALA. Blog post by Mike Karpa that discusses the evolving thinking about pricing exact matches in translation and how context affects the usefulness of an exact match.
[Swisher-Val 3] The Fuzziness of Fuzzy Matches
TM-Town. Blog post that explains how matches are determined.
[Swisher-Val 4] Fuzzy Matching in Theory and in Practice
MultiLingual magazine. Article by Richard Sikes that explains how matching works.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 1] Duolingo discussion about fluency vs proficiency
Interesting perspective on fluency vs. proficiency.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 2] What is Fluency?
Liedel, Emily. Article about what fluency in a second language means.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 3] Choosing Your Vocabulary
Wyner, Gabriel. Fluent Forever blog post about how to build your vocabulary in a new language.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 4] Lexical Facts, The Economist
The Economist. Johnson column that talks about fluency levels.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 5] Test Your Vocabulary Quiz
Fun quiz that tests your English language vocabulary.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 6] Oral Language and Vocabulary Development: Kindergarten & First Grade
Dahlgren, Dr. Mary E. Slide presentation that explains language development in children.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 7] Vocabulary: Does Size Matter?
Duebel, D. Edublog post that discusses whether vocabulary size is more important than how one uses the words he or she knows.
[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 8] Vocabulary Size
Shea, Ammon. New York Times article about vocabulary size and how that vocabulary gets used.
[Schlegel-Anna 1] Truly Global: The Theory and Practice of Bringing Your Company to International Markets
Schlegel, Anna N. End-to-end mapping of what it takes for a company to go global.
[Schlegel-Anna 2] Building Ad-hoc Localization Metrics into Optimized Globalization Business Intelligence
Burbach, Barbara. GALA webinar on collecting and aggregating metrics on localization and globalization to inform business intelligence activities. Subscription required.
[Brewer-Pam Estes 1] The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market
Kohl, J.R. (2008). SAS Publishing.
[Brewer-Pam Estes 2] One company’s efforts to improve translation and localization
Walmer, D. (1999). Technical Communication, no. 2nd Q:230-237.
[Lommel-Arle 1] Translation and Localization Industry Standards
GALA. List of translation and localization industry standards at GALA.
[Lommel-Arle 2] Information on the Americans with Disabilities Act
US Department of Justice. Website that supports the Americans with Disabilities Act.
[Lommel-Arle 3] GSA Government-wide Section 508 Accessibility Program
US General Services Administration (GSA). Resources for complying with Section 508 accessibility requirements for information technology.
[Lommel-Arle 4] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1
Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Recommendations for making web content more accessible.
[Lommel-Arle 5] Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Accessibility of the Websites and Mobile Applications of Public Sector Bodies (Directive 2016/2102/EU)
European Parliament. Directive to make websites and apps more accessible in the European Union.
[Lommel-Arle 6] International Commission on Technology and Accessibility (ICTA)
Commission sponsored by Rehabilitation International Global that focuses on promoting accessibility.
[Lommel-Arle 7] Agile Manifesto
Beck, Kent, et al. Statement of principles that formed the basis for Agile methodologies.
[Lommel-Arle 8] LISA OSCAR Standards
GALA. Website containing references to standards previously held by Localization Industry Standards Association (LISA).
[Lommel-Arle 9] LISA QA Metric
LISA. A quality assurance (QA) model used to help determine the quality of translations based on reviewer feedback.
[Lommel-Arle 10] Quality Translation 21 (QT21). Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Definition
Document that defines the MQM framework.
[Lommel-Arle 11] Term Base eXchange (TBX)
LISA OSCAR. XML standard for defining languages that represent terminology.
[Lommel-Arle 12] ISO 17100:2015(en) Translation services — Requirements for translation services
ISO. Available for purchase from ISO.
[Toon-Alison 1] Best Practices for Client Review Processes
Txabarriaga, Rocio. Common Sense Advisory. Available for purchase.
[Toon-Alison 2] Enabling Globalization: A Guide to Using Localization to Penetrate International Markets
Chapter 12, “Selecting your In-Country Reviewers.”
[Toon-Alison 3] Why In-Country Review Is So Painful — And How You Can Fix It
Smartling. (24 April 2014) Post describing best practices for in-country reviews.
[Yunker-John 1] Think Outside the Country: A Guide to Going Global and Succeeding in the Translation Economy
Yunker, John. Book summary for John Yunker’s latest book on globalization and internationalization.
[Yunker-John 2] W3C Internationalization Activity
The latest from the W3C Internationalization Committee.
[Sasaki-Felix 1] W3C site for Internationalization Tag Set
Site provides the latest version of the standard.
[Ugray-Gábor 1] TMX on Wikipedia
Overview of TMX, the industry’s most influential standard for the exchange of translation memories.
[Ugray-Gábor 2] XLIFF specification
The specification of XLIFF, an indispensable file format for the exchange of bilingual content.
[Kelly-Nataly 1] International Association of Conference Interpreters
The International Association of Conference Interpreters is the only global association of conference interpreters; it brings together more than 3,000 professionals from every continent.
[Kelly-Nataly 2] Found in Translation: How Translation Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World
Kelly, Nataly and Jost Zetzsche. This book provides extensive insight into many different types of interpreting and translation.
[Kelly-Nataly 3] Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies
Pöchhacker, Franz (Editor). Reference guide for interpreters that provides a list of key concepts and issues in interpreting.
[Sikes-Richard 1] TAUS Knowledge Base
TAUS is the leading organization for promotion of machine translation.
[Sikes-Richard 2] The Importance of Language Pairs in Academic and Professional Translation
Stitt, Robert. Ulatus blog post about why language pairs are important.
[Sikes-Richard 3] About Language Pairs
SDL. This is from SDL’s product support site.
[Doest-Patricia 1] Lessons from Travel Companies for Supporting Global CX
Ray, Rebecca and Hélène Pielmeier. Common Sense Advisory report on how leveraging multilingual content benefits the travel industry. Available for purchase.
[Doest-Patricia 2] Multilingual Quality and Topic-based Authoring: A Survey of Common Practice
Batova, Tatiana. CIDM article that discusses survey findings for how topic-based authoring improves multilingual quality.
[Raulf-Chris 1] What is International Search Engine Optimization (ISEO)
Raulf, Chris. Article explaining what ISEO (also known as Multilingual SEO) is and how it can be used.
[Raulf-Chris 2] Language Localization
Wikipedia. Explains localization and locale.
[Romano-James V. 1] Translation and Localization Industry Facts and Data
Information about the localization industry, including size and growth estimates.
[Esselink, 2002] Localization Engineering: The Dream Job?
Esselink, Bert (2002). PDF. English translation of an article in Traducció i Tecnologies de la Informació i la Comunicació about the job of a localization engineer.
[Lawless-Andrew 1] A Localized Global Marketing Strategy
Singh, Nitish. A Brand Quarterly article about the importance of localization to a global marketing strategy.
[Lawless-Andrew 2] Web Analytics Your CEO Wants To Hear
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post about why it’s important to tie localization to business outcomes when talking to the C level.
[Lawless-Andrew 3] How to Avoid Suffocation from Web Localization
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post about how automation and solid processes can help to ensure scalability and consistency.
[Lawless-Andrew 4] 3 must-dos before going global
Rockant Training and Consulting. Video explaining internationalization, localization, and translation, all of which are important to your localization strategy.
[Lawless-Andrew 5] How Search Terms Kill Your Business - Literally
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post that discusses the importance of terminology management and gives some examples.
[Lawless-Andrew 6] Why Localization Does Not Get the Love
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post that summarizes a Facebook Live event Andrew did with Anna Schlegel. The link to the recording is at the bottom of the post.
[DePalma-Don 1] Neural MT, Sorting Fact from Fiction
Lommel, Arle. Common Sense Advisory article that discusses how neural machine translation fits in the language technology landscape.
[DePalma-Don 2] How to Improve Automatic MT Quality Evaluation Metrics
Görög, Attila. A TAUS blog post that discusses how to improve and automate the collection of machine translation quality metrics.
[Creekmore-Laura 1] Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is an open organization supporting innovation in metadata design and best practices across the metadata ecology.
[Van Doren-Madison 1] Monolingualism in America
Erard, Michael. A non-academic discussion of how monolingualism is measured. New York Times.
[Van Doren-Madison 2] Misconceptions About Multilingualism
Serratrice, Ludovica, PhD. LuCiD Bilingualism Policy Briefing article describes common myths and misconceptions about multilingualism, based on her research with UK children at the ESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development. PDF format.
[Van Doren-Madison 3] Monolingualism: The unmarked case
Ellis, Dr. Elizabeth, PhD. Estudios de Sociolingüística 7(2) 2006. Academic article on the different theories of monolingualism in linguistics literature. Ellis also explains how the stereotype that monolingualism is the norm is perpetuated by monolingual speakers of a dominant language, such as English. University of New England. PDF format.
[Braster-Berry 1] World’s Languages, in 7 Maps and Charts
Noack, Rick and Lazaro Gamio. Washington Post article about language diversity, with charts showing number of speakers in each language, most commonly spoken languages, etc.
[Braster-Berry 2] Ethnologue
Reference materials on language-related statistics. Used by many localization professionals.
[Braster-Berry 3] Bilingualism’s Best Kept Secret
Grosjean, François. Discusses the percentage of the world’s population that is bilingual (more than half), and some of the drivers for learning a language.
[Braster-Berry 4] ASD-STE100 Simplified Technical English Specification
One of the most commonly used specifications for implementing controlled language processes in English.
[Brooks-Richard 1] Google Keyword Tool
Free tool that helps you analyze your customer’s search habits.
[Brooks-Richard 2] The Need for Multilingual SEO
Brooks, Richard. Blog post on The Content Wrangler that goes into detail about why multilingual SEO is important and provides advice on how to get started.
[Resnick-Todd 1] The Importance of the Human Voice in Multilingual Content
MultiLingual magazine. In the June 2105 issue, Scott Abel interviewed Todd Resnick about the importance of multilingual voice over.
[Porter-Alan J. 2] First Language
Wikipedia. Article describes how we acquire our first language.
[Porter-Alan J. 3] Who, if anyone, is a native speaker
Pillar, Ingrid. Article that talks about what it means to be a native speaker. PDF format.
[Porter-Alan J. 4] Who Is An Ideal Native Speaker?!
Saniei, Andisheh. 2011 International Conference on Language, Literature, and Linguistics.
[GALA MT] GALA: Top Resources on MT Quality and Post-Editing
This web page aggregates GALA-global’s top recent content about MT quality and post-editing. Includes multiple videos and articles. Note that some items are member (or paid) access.
[Rowda 2016] Better, Faster, and More Efficient Post-Editing
Rowda, Juan (2016). GALA article describing post-editing.
[Curiel-Esther 1] Definition of a Buyer Persona
Hubspot blog post explaining buyer (customer) personas.
[Curiel-Esther 2] Global Marketing: Contemporary Theory, Practice, and Cases
Ilan Alon, Ilan and Eugene Jaffe. Chapter 9, “Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning for Global Markets,” focuses on global market segmentation and international market selection.
[Curiel-Esther 3] A Five-Step Primer for Entering an International Market
Young Entrepreneur Council, Forbes.
[Daniels 1996] The World’s Writing Systems
Daniels, Peter T. and William Bright, eds. This book is one of the most comprehensive works on this subject.
[Nakanishi 1989] Writing Systems of the World
Nakanishi, Akira. This much lighter volume is an introduction to 29 of the world’s more commonly used scripts.
A rich on-line encyclopedia of writing systems and languages.
[Ethnologue] Ethnologue - Languages of the World
An authoritative reference guide to 7,099 of the world’s languages.
[Unicode] The Unicode Consortium
One of the most comprehensive encoding standardization efforts so far.
[Kelly 2017] Brave New Words: Resources
Kelly, Piers. Resources page on Kelly’s blog that identifies resources related to writing systems.
[O’Connell-Jamie 1] Text Segmentation
Wikipedia article that describes how segmentation works.
[O’Connell-Jamie 2] SRX 2.0 Standard (GALA)
Segmentation Rules eXchange (SRX) specifications
[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 1] The Business Side: The Business Why and How of Simship
Asnes, Adam. MultiLingual, July/August 2010. Discusses business reasons for simultaneous shipment. Subscription required.
[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 2] Translation and Localization Project Management: The art of the possible
Dunne, Keiran and Elena. Discusses how to apply project management tools and techniques in the increasingly complex localization environment.
[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 3] Pragmatic Global Content Strategy
Ray, Rebecca and Don DePalma. (27 August 2016) Common Sense Advisory publication that provides practical tips on implementing a global content strategy.
[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 4] Global Content Strategy: A Primer
Swisher, Val. (2014) Provides tips on how to make your global content more accessible.
[Fenstermacher-Hans 1] Content Strategy 101
O’Keefe, Sarah and Alan S. Pringle. Scriptorium. Tips on Creating Content for Localization.
[Fenstermacher-Hans 2] Checklist for Writing Source Text in Plain Language
From the U.S. Government effort to simplify and clarify communications: Plain language (also called Plain English) is communication your audience (translators, too!) can understand the first time they read or hear it.
[Fenstermacher-Hans 3] How the Volume of Source Language Affects Localization Cost
Fenstermacher, Hans. This article goes into some detail about why writers create too much text and some techniques that can be used to minimize it and the cost of translation.
[Raya-Rodolfo M. 1] SRX 2.0 Specification
[Raya-Rodolfo M. 2] SRX 2.0 XML Schema
[Raya-Rodolfo M. 3] SRXEditor: a free cross-platform editor of segmentation rules
Includes a sample file in SRX 2.0 format with a default set of segmentation rules supporting most standard cases. It also includes segmentation rules specific for 16 languages.
[Cid-Fabiano 1] Human Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications
Jacko, Julie A. Chapter 16, “Speech and Language Interfaces, Applications, and Technologies.”
[Cid-Fabiano 2] Quora Entry
An interesting discussion on a translator’s capabilities to handle the “perfect translation” while not being a native speaker.
[Cid-Fabiano 3] How to Improve Your Target Language and Why You Should Even Care
Tustison, Clint. Blog post on Translation Rules website.
[Cid-Fabiano 4] Source Language versus Target Language Bias
Peterson, David. Petersen is a member of the Japan Association of Translators (JAT) with a PhD from the University of Malta. In this Translation Journal article, he discusses how bias affects interpretation and translation of both the source and target language in different ways.
[Cid-Fabiano 5] Content translation/Translation tools
Media Wiki. Extensive information on Content translation/Translation tools.
[Cid-Fabiano 6] Localization Style Guides in English, Spanish, and Portuguese
Ccaps also offers extensive resources for customers and vendors, in particular the Ccaps Style Guide for English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
[Esselink, 2000] A Practical Guide to Software Localization
Esselink, Bert. Although slightly outdated, this is the undisputed industry bible.
[Piehl-Stephanie 1] TermCoord
The EU’s website discussing terminology harmonization efforts and providing resources.
[Piehl-Stephanie 2] Terminology for Large Organizations
Terminology for Large Organizations is a consortium of terminologists who promote terminology management as an essential part of corporate identity, content development, content management, and global communications in large organizations.
[Schneider-Rebecca 1] Terminology Management DOs and DON’Ts
Argos Translations blog post about best practices for managing terminology.
[Schneider-Rebecca 2] Errors in Translated Medication Instructions
Patient Safety blog post giving examples of problems with translations due to inconsistent terminology.
[Schneider-Rebecca 3] Misdiagnoses and Deaths: Why Medical Translations Must be Done by Professionals
Day Translations blog post that discusses medical translation errors that caused patient harm. This post shows why translations should be done by professionals and how important terminology management can be to good translation.
[Taube-Christian 1] TMX 1.4b specification
Savourel, Yves and Arle Lommel.
[Taube-Christian 2] TMX Format 1.0.
The original 1.0 specification of the TMX standard.
[Nunes-Patrick 1] 10 Tips on Transcreation
Väisänen, Mikko. GALA blog post about best practices for transcreation.
[Nunes-Patrick 2] The Little Book of Transcreation
Humphrey, L., et al. A book that explains transcreation and how it is used.
[Nunes-Patrick 3] Reaching New Audiences Through Transcreation
Ray, Rebecca and Nataly Kelly. Common Sense Advisory report on transcreation.
[Nunes-Patrick 4] A Buyer’s Guide to Transcreation
Safar, Libor. Moravia blog post about how to make a buying decision for transcreation.
[Thicke-Lori 1] Research Study Finds Compelling Evidence Linking the Financial Health of Global Companies with Website Multilingualism
Brand strength is strongly correlated to the number of languages on the website, according to Common Sense Advisory.
[Thicke-Lori 2] Can’t Read, Won’t Buy
DePalma, Donald A., et al. Common Sense Advisory found that customers are more likely to make online purchases when they are addressed in their own languages.
[Thicke-Lori 3] Global Customer Experience Increasingly Comes Down to Content—But Not Just in English
Customers equate positive customer experience with being addressed in their native language, according to Common Sense Advisory.
[Lunde-Ken 1] The Unicode Standard
Unicode Consortium. The latest version of The Unicode Standard.
[Lunde-Ken 2] The Unicode Standard Annex #44
Unicode Consortium. The documentation for the Unicode Character Database (UCD).
[Lunde-Ken 3] Unicode FAQ
Unicode Consortium. The Unicode FAQ covers a wide variety of topics that benefit both users and developers.
[Lunde-Ken 4] Unicode Character Code Charts
Unicode Consortium. The latest Unicode Character Code Charts.
[Lunde-Ken 5] CLDR
Unicode Consortium. Common Locale Data Repository.
[Lunde-Ken 6] ICU
International Components for Unicode.
[Lunde-Ken 7] UCD
Unicode Consortium. The latest Unicode Character Database.
[Lunde-Ken 8] CJKV Information Processing
Lunde, Ken. (2009). O’Reilly Media. Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese language processing.
[Filip-David 1] XLIFF Version 2.0
The current OASIS Standard, published 5th August 2014.
[Filip-David 2] XLIFF Version 2.1
The latest version of the current dot release, backward compatible with 2.0, to be fully ratified as an OASIS Standard in 2017.
[Filip-David 3] XLIFF Version 1.2
The legacy version of the XLIFF Standard from 2008.
[Filip-David 4] Bitext
[paid access] From Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology. Authoritative description of bitext: how it came along and how it is important as a collaboration baseline in translation and localization. Paid access.
[Filip-David 5] Using BPM to Analyze the Role of Human Translators in Bitext Management
Filip, David. Presentation contains up-to-date definitions of bitext and bitext management.
[Filip-David 6] Multilingual: XLIFF 2.1 Open for Public Review
MultiLingual magazine article explaining the benefits of XLIFF 2.1.
[Filip-David 7] A Practical Guide to XLIFF 2.0
Schnabel, Bryan, JoAnn T. Hackos, and Rodolfo M. Raya. (2015). An introduction to the XLIFF 2.0 standard.