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References

The references in this section are sorted by term in alphabetical order

Augmented Translation by Arle Lommel

[Lommel-Arle 1] Augmented Translation Powers up Language Services
https://tlolink.com/2yiGd7F
DePalma, Don and Arle Lommel. (15 February 2017) Common Sense Advisory Research blog entry on augmented translation.

[Lommel-Arle 2] Augmented Translation Puts Translators Back in the Center
https://tlolink.com/2hx3Sr3
Lommel, Arle. (19 May 2017) tekom blog entry on augmented translation.

Bitext by Aljoscha Burchardt

[Burchardt-Aljoscha 1] Parallel Text Alignment
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_text
Wikipedia article on parallel texts.

[Burchardt-Aljoscha 2] Bitext Word Alignment
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitext_word_alignment
Wikipedia article on bitext word alignment.

Character Encoding by Chase Tingley

[Tingley-Chase 1] W3C: Character Encodings for Beginners
https://www.w3.org/International/questions/qa-what-is-encoding

[Tingley-Chase 2] W3C: Character Encodings: Essential Concepts
https://www.w3.org/International/articles/definitions-characters/
A more in-depth discussion of characters, character encodings, and related concepts, with an emphasis on Unicode.

Character Set by Dave Ruane

[Ruane-Dave 1] Official Character set names on the internet (IANA)
https://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets/character-sets.xhtml

[Ruane-Dave 2] Programmer information on Character sets and encoding: What every programmer absolutely needs to know
http://kunststube.net/encoding/

[Ruane-Dave 3] Unicode, UTF8 & Character Sets: The Ultimate Guide
https://tlolink.com/2hxg7nB

[Ruane-Dave 4] Universal Character Set Characters
https://tlolink.com/2xvplLc
Open standard that lists the Universal Character Set characters.

Computer-aided translation (CAT) by Jost Zetzsche

[Zetzsche-Jost 1] Computer-Aided Translation
https://tlolink.com/2hx5y41
Garcia, Ignacio. In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology. Ed. Sin-Wai Chan. Routledge: Oxford/New York: 68-87.

[Zetzsche-Jost 2] A Translator’s Tool Box for the 21st Century: A Computer Primer for Translators
http://www.internationalwriters.com/toolbox/
Zetzsche, Jost. Winchester Bay: International Writers’ Group. 2003-2017.

Context by Miguel Sepulveda

[Sepulveda-Miguel 1] Context in Translating
https://tlolink.com/2xmH1t1
Nida, Eugene Albert. Explains the different kinds of contexts that translators must consider.

Controlled Language by Katherine (Kit) Brown-Hoekstra

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 1] The Content Pool
http://xmlpress.net/publications/the-content-pool
Porter, Alan. Porter’s book provides a great overview of content strategy. Pages 50-54 talk about controlled language in more detail.

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 2] Controlled Language: The Next Big Thing in Translation
http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1359.php
Muegge, Uwe. This article talks about the implications of controlled language for translation. Controlled language is part of terminology management.

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 3] The Benefits of Using Controlled Language
https://www.gala-global.org/blog/benefits-using-controlled-language
Brown-Hoekstra, Kit. The essay for this book is based on this presentation and blog post for GALA.

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 4] Summary of Controlled Language Initiatives
https://tlolink.com/2hx2KDQ

Culture by Katherine (Kit) Brown-Hoekstra

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 1] Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach, 7th ed.
https://tlolink.com/2hwu84Y
Neuliep, James W. (2017) Chapter 2, The Cultural Context, discusses the cultural dimensions and how they show cultural context.

[Brown-Hoekstra-Katherine (Kit) 2] Geert Hofstede’s website
https://geert-hofstede.com/
Based on his research at IBM, Geert Hofstede developed the cultural dimensions as a way of understanding the impact of culture on communication in a multicultural corporate environment.

Ethnography by Laura Di Tullio

[Di Tullio-Laura 1] Cultural Dimensions
https://geert-hofstede.com/cultural-dimensions.html
Hofstede, Geert. An explanation of the cultural dimensions that Hofstede developed at IBM.

[Di Tullio-Laura 2] American Dreaming: Refugees from Corporate Work seek the Good Life
https://tlolink.com/2xJfFMS
Burrow, David. (2008) How to use ethnography for in-depth consumer insight.

[Di Tullio-Laura 3] Intro to Discourse Communities and Ethnographic Writing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jj9gzr5y54U
LaVecchia, Christina M. (2016) Lecture on YouTube that discusses discourse communities.

[Di Tullio-Laura 4] Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms
https://www.amazon.com/dp/0521273196
Heath, Shirley Brice. (1999) Page 13 discusses conceptual categories of composition.

[Di Tullio-Laura 5] Does corporate ethnography suck? A cultural analysis of academic critiques of private-sector ethnography
https://tlolink.com/2y6vyxL
Ladner, Sam. (2012) Ethnography Matters blog post that discusses the problems and challenges with corporate ethnography. There are 3 parts to the post.

[Di Tullio-Laura 6] Ethnographic research a key to strategy
https://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy
Anderson, Ken. (March 2009) An article in Harvard Business Review that discusses ways a company can use ethnography to inform corporate strategy.

[Di Tullio-Laura 7] Lost in Translation: 8 International Marketing Fails
https://tlolink.com/2fnV9Xq
Brooks, Chad. (2013) A Business News Daily blog post that describes some of the more famous marketing blunders.

Exact match by Val Swisher

[Swisher-Val 1] SDL Help, Translation Memory Match
https://tlolink.com/2foZE4h
Help topic that explains how SDL Worldserver determines exact and fuzzy matches.

[Swisher-Val 2] Pricing TM Workflow
https://tlolink.com/2yFDfIf
GALA. Blog post by Mike Karpa that discusses the evolving thinking about pricing exact matches in translation and how context affects the usefulness of an exact match.

[Swisher-Val 3] The Fuzziness of Fuzzy Matches
https://www.tm-town.com/blog/the-fuzziness-of-fuzzy-matches
TM-Town. Blog post that explains how matches are determined.

[Swisher-Val 4] Fuzzy Matching in Theory and in Practice
http://dig.multilingual.com/2007-09/index.html?page=39
MultiLingual magazine. Article by Richard Sikes that explains how matching works.

Fluency by Catherine Deschamps-Potter

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 1] Duolingo discussion about fluency vs proficiency
https://www.duolingo.com/comment/1276332/Fluency-vs-Proficiency
Interesting perspective on fluency vs. proficiency.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 2] What is Fluency?
http://www.thebabeltimes.com/content/defining-fluent
Liedel, Emily. Article about what fluency in a second language means.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 3] Choosing Your Vocabulary
https://fluent-forever.com/the-method/vocabulary/
Wyner, Gabriel. Fluent Forever blog post about how to build your vocabulary in a new language.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 4] Lexical Facts, The Economist
https://www.economist.com/blogs/johnson/2013/05/vocabulary-size
The Economist. Johnson column that talks about fluency levels.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 5] Test Your Vocabulary Quiz
http://testyourvocab.com
Fun quiz that tests your English language vocabulary.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 6] Oral Language and Vocabulary Development: Kindergarten & First Grade
https://tlolink.com/2xK5S9d
Dahlgren, Dr. Mary E. Slide presentation that explains language development in children.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 7] Vocabulary: Does Size Matter?
https://tlolink.com/2fo9inJ
Duebel, D. Edublog post that discusses whether vocabulary size is more important than how one uses the words he or she knows.

[Deschamps-Potter-Catherine 8] Vocabulary Size
https://tlolink.com/2xvJPmM
Shea, Ammon. New York Times article about vocabulary size and how that vocabulary gets used.

Globalization (g11n) by Anna Schlegel

[Schlegel-Anna 1] Truly Global: The Theory and Practice of Bringing Your Company to International Markets
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1460287053
Schlegel, Anna N. End-to-end mapping of what it takes for a company to go global.

[Schlegel-Anna 2] Building Ad-hoc Localization Metrics into Optimized Globalization Business Intelligence
https://tlolink.com/2y6QBQC
Burbach, Barbara. GALA webinar on collecting and aggregating metrics on localization and globalization to inform business intelligence activities. Subscription required.

Glossary by Pam Estes Brewer

[Brewer-Pam Estes 1] The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market
https://www.sas.com/sas/books.html
Kohl, J.R. (2008). SAS Publishing.

[Brewer-Pam Estes 2] One company’s efforts to improve translation and localization
https://www.stc.org/techcomm/
Walmer, D. (1999). Technical Communication, no. 2nd Q:230-237.

[Brewer-Pam Estes 3] International Virtual Teams: Engineering Global Success

Brewer, Pam Estes. (2015). IEEE PCS Professional Engineering Communication Series.

Glossary of Standards Terms by Arle Lommel

[Lommel-Arle 1] Translation and Localization Industry Standards
https://tlolink.com/2g3WsPf
GALA. List of translation and localization industry standards at GALA.

[Lommel-Arle 2] Information on the Americans with Disabilities Act
https://www.ada.gov
US Department of Justice. Website that supports the Americans with Disabilities Act.

[Lommel-Arle 3] GSA Government-wide Section 508 Accessibility Program
https://www.section508.gov
US General Services Administration (GSA). Resources for complying with Section 508 accessibility requirements for information technology.

[Lommel-Arle 4] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1
https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/
Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Recommendations for making web content more accessible.

[Lommel-Arle 5] Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Accessibility of the Websites and Mobile Applications of Public Sector Bodies (Directive 2016/2102/EU)
https://tlolink.com/2hBnZ7m
European Parliament. Directive to make websites and apps more accessible in the European Union.

[Lommel-Arle 6] International Commission on Technology and Accessibility (ICTA)
http://www.riglobal.org/about/working-commissions/
Commission sponsored by Rehabilitation International Global that focuses on promoting accessibility.

[Lommel-Arle 7] Agile Manifesto
http://agilemanifesto.org
Beck, Kent, et al. Statement of principles that formed the basis for Agile methodologies.

[Lommel-Arle 8] LISA OSCAR Standards
https://gala-global.org/lisa-oscar-standards
GALA. Website containing references to standards previously held by Localization Industry Standards Association (LISA).

[Lommel-Arle 9] LISA QA Metric
https://tlolink.com/2fBimcE
LISA. A quality assurance (QA) model used to help determine the quality of translations based on reviewer feedback.

[Lommel-Arle 10] Quality Translation 21 (QT21). Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Definition
http://qt21.eu/mqm-definition
Document that defines the MQM framework.

[Lommel-Arle 11] Term Base eXchange (TBX)
http://ttt.org/oscarstandards/tbx
LISA OSCAR. XML standard for defining languages that represent terminology.

[Lommel-Arle 12] ISO 17100:2015(en) Translation services — Requirements for translation services
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:17100:ed-1:v1:en
ISO. Available for purchase from ISO.

In-Country Review (ICR) by Alison Toon

[Toon-Alison 1] Best Practices for Client Review Processes
https://tlolink.com/2yEC6k1
Txabarriaga, Rocio. Common Sense Advisory. Available for purchase.

[Toon-Alison 2] Enabling Globalization: A Guide to Using Localization to Penetrate International Markets
https://globalvis.com/resources/localization-ebook/
Chapter 12, Selecting your In-Country Reviewers.

[Toon-Alison 3] Why In-Country Review Is So Painful — And How You Can Fix It
https://www.smartling.com/blog/in-country-review-painful-fix/
Smartling. (24 April 2014) Post describing best practices for in-country reviews.

Internationalization (i18n) by John Yunker

[Yunker-John 1] Think Outside the Country: A Guide to Going Global and Succeeding in the Translation Economy
http://www.bytelevelbooks.com/books/thinkoutsidecountry.html
Yunker, John. Book summary for John Yunker’s latest book on globalization and internationalization.

[Yunker-John 2] W3C Internationalization Activity
https://www.w3.org/International/
The latest from the W3C Internationalization Committee.

Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) by Felix Sasaki

[Sasaki-Felix 1] W3C site for Internationalization Tag Set
https://www.w3.org/TR/its20/
Site provides the latest version of the standard.

Interoperability by Gábor Ugray

[Ugray-Gábor 1] TMX on Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_Memory_eXchange
Overview of TMX, the industry’s most influential standard for the exchange of translation memories.

[Ugray-Gábor 2] XLIFF specification
http://docs.oasis-open.org/xliff/xliff-core/xliff-core.html
The specification of XLIFF, an indispensable file format for the exchange of bilingual content.

Interpreting by Nataly Kelly

[Kelly-Nataly 1] International Association of Conference Interpreters
https://aiic.net/
The International Association of Conference Interpreters is the only global association of conference interpreters; it brings together more than 3,000 professionals from every continent.

[Kelly-Nataly 2] Found in Translation: How Translation Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World
https://www.amazon.com/dp/039953797X
Kelly, Nataly and Jost Zetzsche. This book provides extensive insight into many different types of interpreting and translation.

[Kelly-Nataly 3] Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies
https://www.amazon.com/dp/0415634326
Pöchhacker, Franz (Editor). Reference guide for interpreters that provides a list of key concepts and issues in interpreting.

Language Pair by Richard Sikes

[Sikes-Richard 1] TAUS Knowledge Base
https://www.taus.net/knowledgebase/index.php/Language_pair
TAUS is the leading organization for promotion of machine translation.

[Sikes-Richard 2] The Importance of Language Pairs in Academic and Professional Translation
https://tlolink.com/2fp6Ltf
Stitt, Robert. Ulatus blog post about why language pairs are important.

[Sikes-Richard 3] About Language Pairs
https://tlolink.com/2xvMU6k
SDL. This is from SDL’s product support site.

Leverage by Patricia Doest

[Doest-Patricia 1] Lessons from Travel Companies for Supporting Global CX
https://tlolink.com/2fozbDI
Ray, Rebecca and Hélène Pielmeier. Common Sense Advisory report on how leveraging multilingual content benefits the travel industry. Available for purchase.

[Doest-Patricia 2] Multilingual Quality and Topic-based Authoring: A Survey of Common Practice
https://tlolink.com/2xJwFm7
Batova, Tatiana. CIDM article that discusses survey findings for how topic-based authoring improves multilingual quality.

Locale by Chris Raulf

[Raulf-Chris 1] What is International Search Engine Optimization (ISEO)
https://tlolink.com/2hxsIHp
Raulf, Chris. Article explaining what ISEO (also known as Multilingual SEO) is and how it can be used.

[Raulf-Chris 2] Language Localization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_localization
Wikipedia. Explains localization and locale.

Localization (l10n) by James V. Romano

[Romano-James V. 1] Translation and Localization Industry Facts and Data
https://tlolink.com/2xzCZss
Information about the localization industry, including size and growth estimates.

Localization Engineering by Bert Esselink

[Esselink, 2002] Localization Engineering: The Dream Job?
https://tlolink.com/2fo14Mm
Esselink, Bert (2002). PDF. English translation of an article in Traducció i Tecnologies de la Informació i la Comunicació about the job of a localization engineer.

Localization Strategy by Andrew Lawless

[Lawless-Andrew 1] A Localized Global Marketing Strategy
http://www.brandquarterly.com/localized-global-marketing-strategy
Singh, Nitish. A Brand Quarterly article about the importance of localization to a global marketing strategy.

[Lawless-Andrew 2] Web Analytics Your CEO Wants To Hear
https://tlolink.com/2y5UlSu
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post about why it’s important to tie localization to business outcomes when talking to the C level.

[Lawless-Andrew 3] How to Avoid Suffocation from Web Localization
https://tlolink.com/2y6zO0d
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post about how automation and solid processes can help to ensure scalability and consistency.

[Lawless-Andrew 4] 3 must-dos before going global
https://rockant.com/3-must-dos-going-global/
Rockant Training and Consulting. Video explaining internationalization, localization, and translation, all of which are important to your localization strategy.

[Lawless-Andrew 5] How Search Terms Kill Your Business - Literally
https://tlolink.com/2fnYJRz
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post that discusses the importance of terminology management and gives some examples.

[Lawless-Andrew 6] Why Localization Does Not Get the Love
https://tlolink.com/2xJhg4X
Lawless, Andrew. LinkedIn post that summarizes a Facebook Live event Andrew did with Anna Schlegel. The link to the recording is at the bottom of the post.

Machine Translation (MT) by Don DePalma

[DePalma-Don 1] Neural MT, Sorting Fact from Fiction
https://tlolink.com/2yF5tCP
Lommel, Arle. Common Sense Advisory article that discusses how neural machine translation fits in the language technology landscape.

[DePalma-Don 2] How to Improve Automatic MT Quality Evaluation Metrics
https://tlolink.com/2xJxVp8
Görög, Attila. A TAUS blog post that discusses how to improve and automate the collection of machine translation quality metrics.

Metadata by Laura Creekmore

[Creekmore-Laura 1] Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
http://dublincore.org/
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is an open organization supporting innovation in metadata design and best practices across the metadata ecology.

Monolingual by Madison Van Doren

[Van Doren-Madison 1] Monolingualism in America
https://tlolink.com/2xvzveO
Erard, Michael. A non-academic discussion of how monolingualism is measured. New York Times.

[Van Doren-Madison 2] Misconceptions About Multilingualism
https://tlolink.com/2hxky1L
Serratrice, Ludovica, PhD. LuCiD Bilingualism Policy Briefing article describes common myths and misconceptions about multilingualism, based on her research with UK children at the ESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development. PDF format.

[Van Doren-Madison 3] Monolingualism: The unmarked case
https://tlolink.com/2y7m6dA
Ellis, Dr. Elizabeth, PhD. Estudios de Sociolingüística 7(2) 2006. Academic article on the different theories of monolingualism in linguistics literature. Ellis also explains how the stereotype that monolingualism is the norm is perpetuated by monolingual speakers of a dominant language, such as English. University of New England. PDF format.

Multilingual by Berry Braster

[Braster-Berry 1] World’s Languages, in 7 Maps and Charts
https://tlolink.com/2hxtwMn
Noack, Rick and Lazaro Gamio. Washington Post article about language diversity, with charts showing number of speakers in each language, most commonly spoken languages, etc.

[Braster-Berry 2] Ethnologue
https://www.ethnologue.com/
Reference materials on language-related statistics. Used by many localization professionals.

[Braster-Berry 3] Bilingualism’s Best Kept Secret
https://tlolink.com/2hxhjHz
Grosjean, François. Discusses the percentage of the world’s population that is bilingual (more than half), and some of the drivers for learning a language.

[Braster-Berry 4] ASD-STE100 Simplified Technical English Specification
http://www.asd-ste100.org/
One of the most commonly used specifications for implementing controlled language processes in English.

Multilingual Search Engine Optimization (MSEO) by Richard Brooks

[Brooks-Richard 1] Google Keyword Tool
https://adwords.google.com/home/tools/keyword-planner/
Free tool that helps you analyze your customer’s search habits.

[Brooks-Richard 2] The Need for Multilingual SEO
http://thecontentwrangler.com/2015/08/04/the-need-for-multilingual-seo/
Brooks, Richard. Blog post on The Content Wrangler that goes into detail about why multilingual SEO is important and provides advice on how to get started.

Multilingual Voice Over by Todd Resnick

[Resnick-Todd 1] The Importance of the Human Voice in Multilingual Content
https://tlolink.com/2xJGXmf
MultiLingual magazine. In the June 2105 issue, Scott Abel interviewed Todd Resnick about the importance of multilingual voice over.

Native Speaker by Alan J. Porter

[Porter-Alan J. 1] Defining a Native Speaker

Davies, Alan and Elder, Catherine (eds) Handbook of Applied Linguistics, New York: Blackwell.

[Porter-Alan J. 2] First Language
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_language
Wikipedia. Article describes how we acquire our first language.

[Porter-Alan J. 3] Who, if anyone, is a native speaker
https://tlolink.com/2xJoMNs
Pillar, Ingrid. Article that talks about what it means to be a native speaker. PDF format.

[Porter-Alan J. 4] Who Is An Ideal Native Speaker?!
http://www.ipedr.com/vol26/16-ICLLL%202011-L00033.pdf
Saniei, Andisheh. 2011 International Conference on Language, Literature, and Linguistics.

Post-editing by Laura Brandon

[GALA MT] GALA: Top Resources on MT Quality and Post-Editing
https://tlolink.com/2hwHH4a
This web page aggregates GALA-global’s top recent content about MT quality and post-editing. Includes multiple videos and articles. Note that some items are member (or paid) access.

[Rowda 2016] Better, Faster, and More Efficient Post-Editing
https://tlolink.com/2yFWPUL
Rowda, Juan (2016). GALA article describing post-editing.

Primary Market by Esther Curiel

[Curiel-Esther 1] Definition of a Buyer Persona
https://tlolink.com/2y5VWrx
Hubspot blog post explaining buyer (customer) personas.

[Curiel-Esther 2] Global Marketing: Contemporary Theory, Practice, and Cases

Ilan Alon, Ilan and Eugene Jaffe. Chapter 9, Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning for Global Markets, focuses on global market segmentation and international market selection.

[Curiel-Esther 3] A Five-Step Primer for Entering an International Market
https://tlolink.com/2foTdxV
Young Entrepreneur Council, Forbes.

Script by Erik Vogt

[Daniels 1996] The World’s Writing Systems
https://tlolink.com/2xJbxMF
Daniels, Peter T. and William Bright, eds. This book is one of the most comprehensive works on this subject.

[Nakanishi 1989] Writing Systems of the World
https://tlolink.com/2yFfaRW
Nakanishi, Akira. This much lighter volume is an introduction to 29 of the world’s more commonly used scripts.

[Omniglot] Omniglot
http://www.omniglot.com
A rich on-line encyclopedia of writing systems and languages.

[Ethnologue] Ethnologue - Languages of the World
https://www.ethnologue.com/
An authoritative reference guide to 7,099 of the world’s languages.

[Unicode] The Unicode Consortium
http://www.unicode.org/
One of the most comprehensive encoding standardization efforts so far.

[Kelly 2017] Brave New Words: Resources
https://bravenewwords.info/writing-systems-resources/
Kelly, Piers. Resources page on Kelly’s blog that identifies resources related to writing systems.

Segment by Jamie O’Connell

[O’Connell-Jamie 1] Text Segmentation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_segmentation
Wikipedia article that describes how segmentation works.

[O’Connell-Jamie 2] SRX 2.0 Standard (GALA)
https://www.gala-global.org/srx-20-april-7-2008
Segmentation Rules eXchange (SRX) specifications

Simship by Carmen Avilés Suárez

[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 1] The Business Side: The Business Why and How of Simship
https://multilingual.com/all-articles/?art_id=1702
Asnes, Adam. MultiLingual, July/August 2010. Discusses business reasons for simultaneous shipment. Subscription required.

[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 2] Translation and Localization Project Management: The art of the possible
https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/ata.xvi/main
Dunne, Keiran and Elena. Discusses how to apply project management tools and techniques in the increasingly complex localization environment.

[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 3] Pragmatic Global Content Strategy
https://tlolink.com/2xIYwmo
Ray, Rebecca and Don DePalma. (27 August 2016) Common Sense Advisory publication that provides practical tips on implementing a global content strategy.

[Avilés Suárez-Carmen 4] Global Content Strategy: A Primer
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1937434400
Swisher, Val. (2014) Provides tips on how to make your global content more accessible.

Source Language by Hans Fenstermacher

[Fenstermacher-Hans 1] Content Strategy 101
https://tlolink.com/2yaZ05g
O’Keefe, Sarah and Alan S. Pringle. Scriptorium. Tips on Creating Content for Localization.

[Fenstermacher-Hans 2] Checklist for Writing Source Text in Plain Language
http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/quickreference/checklist.cfm
From the U.S. Government effort to simplify and clarify communications: Plain language (also called Plain English) is communication your audience (translators, too!) can understand the first time they read or hear it.

[Fenstermacher-Hans 3] How the Volume of Source Language Affects Localization Cost
http://www.translationdirectory.com/article1012.htm
Fenstermacher, Hans. This article goes into some detail about why writers create too much text and some techniques that can be used to minimize it and the cost of translation.

SRX by Rodolfo M. Raya

[Raya-Rodolfo M. 1] SRX 2.0 Specification
https://www.gala-global.org/srx-20-april-7-2008

[Raya-Rodolfo M. 3] SRXEditor: a free cross-platform editor of segmentation rules
http://www.maxprograms.com/products/srxeditor.htmluse
Includes a sample file in SRX 2.0 format with a default set of segmentation rules supporting most standard cases. It also includes segmentation rules specific for 16 languages.

Target language by Fabiano Cid

[Cid-Fabiano 1] Human Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

Jacko, Julie A. Chapter 16, Speech and Language Interfaces, Applications, and Technologies.

[Cid-Fabiano 2] Quora Entry
https://tlolink.com/2hxuGHV
An interesting discussion on a translator’s capabilities to handle the perfect translation while not being a native speaker.

[Cid-Fabiano 3] How to Improve Your Target Language and Why You Should Even Care
https://tlolink.com/2fpqCc1
Tustison, Clint. Blog post on Translation Rules website.

[Cid-Fabiano 4] Source Language versus Target Language Bias
http://translationjournal.net/journal/29bias.htm
Peterson, David. Petersen is a member of the Japan Association of Translators (JAT) with a PhD from the University of Malta. In this Translation Journal article, he discusses how bias affects interpretation and translation of both the source and target language in different ways.

[Cid-Fabiano 5] Content translation/Translation tools
https://tlolink.com/2yFxuu3
Media Wiki. Extensive information on Content translation/Translation tools.

[Cid-Fabiano 6] Localization Style Guides in English, Spanish, and Portuguese
http://www.ccaps.net/vendors/style-guides/
Ccaps also offers extensive resources for customers and vendors, in particular the Ccaps Style Guide for English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

[Esselink, 2000] A Practical Guide to Software Localization
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1588110060
Esselink, Bert. Although slightly outdated, this is the undisputed industry bible.

Term Extraction by Stephanie Piehl

[Piehl-Stephanie 1] TermCoord
http://termcoord.eu/
The EU’s website discussing terminology harmonization efforts and providing resources.

[Piehl-Stephanie 2] Terminology for Large Organizations
http://www.terminorgs.net/
Terminology for Large Organizations is a consortium of terminologists who promote terminology management as an essential part of corporate identity, content development, content management, and global communications in large organizations.

Terminology Management by Rebecca Schneider

[Schneider-Rebecca 1] Terminology Management DOs and DON’Ts
http://www.argostranslations.com/newsletters/newsletter_01.html
Argos Translations blog post about best practices for managing terminology.

[Schneider-Rebecca 2] Errors in Translated Medication Instructions
https://tlolink.com/2z0wErc
Patient Safety blog post giving examples of problems with translations due to inconsistent terminology.

[Schneider-Rebecca 3] Misdiagnoses and Deaths: Why Medical Translations Must be Done by Professionals
https://tlolink.com/2i6lhLj
Day Translations blog post that discusses medical translation errors that caused patient harm. This post shows why translations should be done by professionals and how important terminology management can be to good translation.

TMX by Christian Taube

[Taube-Christian 1] TMX 1.4b specification
https://www.gala-global.org/tmx-14b
Savourel, Yves and Arle Lommel.

[Taube-Christian 2] TMX Format 1.0.
http://xml.coverpages.org/tmxSpec971212.html
The original 1.0 specification of the TMX standard.

Transcreation by Patrick Nunes

[Nunes-Patrick 1] 10 Tips on Transcreation
https://www.gala-global.org/blog/10-tips-transcreation
Väisänen, Mikko. GALA blog post about best practices for transcreation.

[Nunes-Patrick 2] The Little Book of Transcreation
https://tlolink.com/2xuUMFi
Humphrey, L., et al. A book that explains transcreation and how it is used.

[Nunes-Patrick 3] Reaching New Audiences Through Transcreation
https://tlolink.com/2xv8Q1G
Ray, Rebecca and Nataly Kelly. Common Sense Advisory report on transcreation.

[Nunes-Patrick 4] A Buyer’s Guide to Transcreation
https://tlolink.com/2y5G6Nt
Safar, Libor. Moravia blog post about how to make a buying decision for transcreation.

Translation (t9n) by Lori Thicke

[Thicke-Lori 1] Research Study Finds Compelling Evidence Linking the Financial Health of Global Companies with Website Multilingualism
https://tlolink.com/2y5Totj
Brand strength is strongly correlated to the number of languages on the website, according to Common Sense Advisory.

[Thicke-Lori 2] Can’t Read, Won’t Buy
https://tlolink.com/2xKR3mV
DePalma, Donald A., et al. Common Sense Advisory found that customers are more likely to make online purchases when they are addressed in their own languages.

[Thicke-Lori 3] Global Customer Experience Increasingly Comes Down to Content—But Not Just in English
https://tlolink.com/2yHb6AC
Customers equate positive customer experience with being addressed in their native language, according to Common Sense Advisory.

Unicode by Ken Lunde

[Lunde-Ken 1] The Unicode Standard
http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/
Unicode Consortium. The latest version of The Unicode Standard.

[Lunde-Ken 2] The Unicode Standard Annex #44
http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr44/
Unicode Consortium. The documentation for the Unicode Character Database (UCD).

[Lunde-Ken 3] Unicode FAQ
http://www.unicode.org/faq/
Unicode Consortium. The Unicode FAQ covers a wide variety of topics that benefit both users and developers.

[Lunde-Ken 4] Unicode Character Code Charts
http://www.unicode.org/charts/
Unicode Consortium. The latest Unicode Character Code Charts.

[Lunde-Ken 5] CLDR
http://cldr.unicode.org/
Unicode Consortium. Common Locale Data Repository.

[Lunde-Ken 6] ICU
http://site.icu-project.org/
International Components for Unicode.

[Lunde-Ken 7] UCD
http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCD/latest/ucd/
Unicode Consortium. The latest Unicode Character Database.

[Lunde-Ken 8] CJKV Information Processing
https://www.amazon.com/dp/0596514476
Lunde, Ken. (2009). O’Reilly Media. Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese language processing.

XLIFF by David Filip

[Filip-David 1] XLIFF Version 2.0
http://docs.oasis-open.org/xliff/xliff-core/v2.0/os/xliff-core-v2.0-os.html
The current OASIS Standard, published 5th August 2014.

[Filip-David 2] XLIFF Version 2.1
http://docs.oasis-open.org/xliff/xliff-core/v2.1/xliff-core-v2.1.html
The latest version of the current dot release, backward compatible with 2.0, to be fully ratified as an OASIS Standard in 2017.

[Filip-David 3] XLIFF Version 1.2
http://docs.oasis-open.org/xliff/v1.2/os/xliff-core.html
The legacy version of the XLIFF Standard from 2008.

[Filip-David 4] Bitext
https://tlolink.com/2hxA1il
[paid access] From Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology. Authoritative description of bitext: how it came along and how it is important as a collaboration baseline in translation and localization. Paid access.

[Filip-David 5] Using BPM to Analyze the Role of Human Translators in Bitext Management
https://tlolink.com/2fp4JcG
Filip, David. Presentation contains up-to-date definitions of bitext and bitext management.

[Filip-David 6] Multilingual: XLIFF 2.1 Open for Public Review
https://multilingual.com/xliff-2-1-open-second-public-review/
MultiLingual magazine article explaining the benefits of XLIFF 2.1.

[Filip-David 7] A Practical Guide to XLIFF 2.0
http://xmlpress.net/publications/xliff
Schnabel, Bryan, JoAnn T. Hackos, and Rodolfo M. Raya. (2015). An introduction to the XLIFF 2.0 standard.